Data Wrangling: Key Steps in Data Integration

Data integration is essential when working with data from multiple sources, and it can be a bit complex. When different systems, applications, or departments in a business collect data, they might store it in various formats and structures. Data integration is the process of combining this data, making it consistent, and ensuring its quality, so you can use it for analysis and informed decision-making.

Here’s an example to illustrate this concept: let’s say a retail company has two data sources – one for online sales (e.g., on their website) and another for in-store sales (e.g., point-of-sale systems). We need to integrate data from both sources to get a complete view of the company’s sales performance.

There are five key steps in the data integration process:

1. Data collection: The first step is to gather data from different sources. This can be done through various methods, such as APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), file transfers, or even manual data entry. 

  • For example, in our retail scenario, we might use an API to access the online sales data and file transfers to collect the in-store sales data.

2. Data cleaning: In this step, we identify and correct any errors or inconsistencies in the data. This can include fixing typos, removing duplicates, and standardizing formats.

  • For instance, online sales data may have product names in lowercase, while in-store data may have them in uppercase. We need to standardize the product names to make sure we can match and analyze them correctly.

3. Data transformation: The data from different sources may be in different formats, and we need to convert it into a consistent structure for seamless integration. This usually involves data modeling, which means creating a logical model representing the relationships between different data elements. 

  • In our retail scenario, we might create a data model that includes tables for customers, products, and transactions and map the fields from both online and in-store data sources to this model.

4. Data integration: We’ll merge the cleaned and transformed data from different sources into the target data model. This usually involves joining related tables, handling situations where records are missing from one source or the other, and ensuring data integrity is maintained throughout the process.

  • In our example, we might join online and in-store customer records based on their email addresses, ensuring we capture all transactions for each customer, regardless of where the purchase was made.

5. Data validation: Lastly, we’ll perform quality checks to ensure the integrated data is accurate, consistent, and complete. It’s a good practice to set up automated processes to monitor the data continuously and flag any issues that may arise in the future.

  • For example, we may have a dashboard that monitors KPIs for sales data and alerts us if any unexpected trends or data issues are detected.


Data integration involves collecting data from multiple sources, cleaning and transforming it, combining it into a consistent data model, and validating its quality. Following these practices in data integration helps ensure that our integrated datasets are reliable, complete, and ready for analysis, empowering businesses to make data-driven decisions.

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