### What is partial correlation?

📊🔍 What questions does partial correlation help us answer? 🤔🤔 Partial correlation is a statistical method used to explore the relationship between two variables while controlling for the effects of one or more other variables. This helps us answer questions such as: Is the relationship between two variables still significant when we control for the […]

### What lessons can we learn from Anscombe’s quartet?

📊🔍 What does Anscombe’s quartet teach us about the importance of visualizing data instead of relying on summary statistics when exploring data? 🤔🤔 Anscombe’s quartet is a set of four datasets that have nearly identical summary statistics, but very different visual patterns. This teaches us the importance of visualizing data instead of relying solely on […]

### What is a nonlinear relationship?

📊🔍 What are examples of nonlinear relationships? 🤔🤔 Nonlinear relationships are relationships between two variables that cannot be described by a straight line. Instead, they may follow a curve or some other pattern. 📈📉 Imagine you’re playing with a yo-yo. If you pull the string a little, the yo-yo goes down a little. If you […]

### How to interpret correlation?

📊🔍 Why can we not say that one thing causes another based on a correlation coefficient or a strong correlation in a scatterplot? 🤔🤔 While a correlation coefficient or a strong correlation in a scatterplot can suggest a relationship between two variables, we cannot say that one thing causes another based on this alone. 🚫🧐 […]

### What are the different types of correlation coefficients?

📊🔍 What are the different types of correlation coefficients? 🤔🤔 There are different types of correlation coefficients that measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. 📈📉 👉 Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) is the most commonly used and measures the degree of linear association between two continuous variables. It ranges from […]

### What is a correlation coefficient?

📊🔍 What is a correlation coefficient? 🤔🤔 A correlation coefficient is a number that measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. 📈📉 Think of it like a music producer 🎧 adjusting the volume on two different tracks. The correlation coefficient tells us how loud one track is compared to the […]

### What is correlation?

📊🔍 What is correlation? 🤔🤔 Correlation describes the degree of the linear relationship between two variables. 📈📉 Imagine you’re playing basketball 🏀 and you notice that the more you practice shooting free-throws, the higher your accuracy becomes. That’s an example of a positive correlation between practice and accuracy. As the number of practice sessions increases, […]

### How to use a parallel coordinates plot to explore correlation?

📊🔍 What is a parallel coordinates plot? 🤔🤔 A parallel coordinates plot is a graphical tool used to visualize the relationship between multiple variables. It’s like a musical score 🎼 where each variable represents a different instrument, and the lines show how they play together. In a parallel coordinates plot, each variable is represented by […]

### How do outliers impact correlation?

📊🔍 How do outliers impact a correlation coefficient? 🤔🤔 Outliers are data points that are significantly different from the other data points. They can have a big impact on a correlation coefficient, which is a number that measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. 📈📉 Imagine you’re in a class […]

### How to use a scatterplot to explore correlation?

📊🔍 Why use a scatterplot to explore correlation? 🤔🤔 A scatterplot is a graphical tool that displays the relationship between two variables. It’s like a map 🗺️ that helps us see where different variables are located. A scatterplot conveys much more information than a single correlation coefficient because it shows us the actual data points […]